Africa must guard against falling into a "colonial relationship" with China, South African President Thabo Mbeki has warned the continent.
His comments come as fast-growing China is continuing to increase its push for raw materials across Africa.
Mr Mbeki said African nations must strive for their relationship with China to be based on equal trade.
Last month, China hosted an Africa summit attended by 50 African leaders including Mr Mbeki.
Mr Mbeki said that if Africa just exported raw materials to China while importing Chinese manufactured goods, the African continent could be "condemned to underdevelopment".
He said that this would simply mean "a replication" of Africa's historical relationship with its former colonial powers.
I fear that they would not be as good to Africa as Europe was, and they were not very good at all.